Ahn Jong-yuen | 안종연
Hwang Young-ja | 황영자
Hong Myung-seop | 홍명섭
Im Hyun-hee | 임현희
Kerri LEE
Kim Ji-seon | 김지선
Lee Kun-yong | 이건용
Lee Lee-nam | 이이남
Lee Seung-Hee | 이승희
LEE, Seung | 승연례
Marco Santaniello
Na Kwang-ho | 나광호
Oh Yi-ryang | 오이량
Park Gye-hoon | 박계훈
Park Seo-bo | 박서보
Park Young-ha | 박영하
Song Hyun-Ju | 송현주
Sonya Kang | 소냐 강
-
Chinese Artist

Park Seo-bo | 박서보

예천에서 태어난 박서보(朴栖甫,1931- )는 홍익대 서양화과를 나와 1958년 ‘현대미협’에 가담한 후, ‘뜨거운 추상’으로 불린 앙포르멜 운동의 기수로 활동하며 향후 우리나라 현대미술계를 이끄는 중요 인물로서의 여정을 시작했다.

1961년 세계청년화가 파리대회에 참가한 후 박서보는 자신이 수용한 추상 표현주의 미학을 토대로 서양문화에 저항하는 원형질(原形質) 시리즈를 전개해 나갔다. 그리고 60년대 중반 현대인의 온갖 번잡스러운 형상의 본질을 고발한 허상(虛像) 연작을 거쳐 70년대부터 일명 ‘손의 여행’으로 불리는 묘법(猫法)시대로 접어들었다.

박서보의 초기 묘법은 캔버스에 유백색 또는 분청을 연상시키는 안료로 바탕을 만들고 젖은 상태인 화면에 연필 또는 철필로 일정한 길이의 선획을 반복적으로 그어 리듬을 만들어가는 방법이었다. 바탕과 그리기의 이원론적 충돌이 화면의 긴장감을 고조시키는 이 시기 작품은 무수히 반복되는 선긋기의 행위성을 통해 자신을 순화시켜 나가는 무위자연의 이념이 스며 들어 있다.

80년대부터 본격화된 후기 묘법은 이러한 선긋기(Drawing) 작업에 적합한 매재로 종이대신 전통 한지를 선택해 이루어진다. 그 결과 선긋기는 더욱 대형화된 화면속에 조밀한 패턴으로 반복되면서도 오히려 한지 속으로 자연스럽게 융해되어 바탕과 그리기가 일체화된 세계에 이르렀다.

박서보의 묘법 회화는 화가의 행위성이 끝난 시점이 곧 작품의 종결이라는 서구적 방법론을 넘어 그 위에 시간이 개입된 변화의 여정을 거친 후에야 인생과 예술이 완성에 다다른다는 깊은 동양회화 사상을 담아내고 있다.

Spirit, As Revealed through the Hidden

Lee, Dong-Suk
Curator/Pusan Metropolitan Art Museum

At the end of the sixties Park Seo-bo while professing concepts like ‘post image’ and ‘post expression’ initiated his ecriture (or myo=drawing bop=method in Korean) period. Up until the present time, ecriture has passed through several transformations in its methodological notions. From the outside the artist, who stands at a fixed, central location, has made a successful effort to secure the status of his monochromatic surface paintings. Simultaneously, internally Park has offered a convincing rational in a universal language for the evolutionary process of ecriture. Finally during these years the artist has shared with the public several pithy epigrams that summarize the methodological principles and spiritual state of ecriture. These descriptive phrases include ‘post image and post impression,’ ‘purposeless activity,’ ‘the anonymity of freedom from all distraction,’ ‘the destruction of the self through self-oblivion and moral training,’ and ‘the conquering of ki (ki=technique) by ki (ki=spirit).’
Park’s statement that ‘ki (spirit) masters ki (technique)’ is also an expression of his belief that mannerism can be overcome through ascetic training. Yet, in another way, it is also an explanation of the predominant characteristic of monochrome painting. In other words, that technique and process are linked to the methodology and spirituality of a work. In Park’s case also, the process of the work becomes a vital clue to inducing the intentions of the artist or the concept and spirituality of the work. Thus an analysis that connects process and form as well as methodology and spirit is a cogent way to approach an understanding of ecriture.
Early ecriture usually involved pencil drawings on a canvas painted with light gray oil paint, then these drawings were over painted with oil paints and then more pencil drawing was done on top of that-a process that was repeated indefinitely. Even at this stage the dualistic division between drawing and color had been resolved. In addition, matter and the physical body were used as a neutral intermediary between the act of painting and the canvas in establishing the sense of surface in the work.
In around 1982 Park Seo-bo moved to his ‘later ecriture’ period, which involved the use of hanji (the term literally means ‘Korean paper’ generally made of mulberry pulp) and water based paint. The formal characteristics of later ecriture encompassed the notion of ‘concealment and revelation’ made by interrupted and multi-directional lines. It also included the idea of adapting the material nature of multiple strokes as a medium while at the same time the creation of an unlimited surface area. At this point the sympathetic activity between what the artist described as the ‘nature of the object’ and the ‘body’ became even closer and the relationship between each surpassed the level of response to approach a state of unity.
In Park’s recent works we find the artist continuing to use the notion and methodologies of later ecriture, but he shows an even higher level of restraint and asceticism in his canvases. In contrast to the compression of texture and reduction in the weave, the surface characteristics of the vertical patterns and the repetition emphasize the severity of the work. Naturally the uniform use of the black tone suggests monastic austerity and piety. This effect is not simply the result of the color black, but the deep spirituality of a color that approaches the light and air absorbing qualities of a fathomless swamp. The artist has sublimated two extreme opposites and arrived at a path to a spiritual vision of moderation and moral discipline he has long sought.
Ecriture has transformed, in a way that no other artistic technique has, the characteristics of traditional hanji in a superb example of its adaptation into a modern grammar. Here the use of hanji does not stop with borrowing it as a material or a medium. Rather, the intent of the work is directly linked to the use of hanji while in a limited sense it is also connected to the spirituality the artist is striving for.
Hanji is highly permeable, absorbs liquids well and is an irregular medium. While it does have these passive qualities, it is also a medium that is suppler and allows for the possibilities of self-regulated creativity. The artist relies on the fact that the characteristic of hanji and his principles of creativity are in tune with each other creating a rhythm of inactivity. With the body as a tool and activity as a medium, this process of approaching the material is always in the act of being until it is stopped and the rest is left to a ‘time of creativity’ to complete. The artist’s comment that ‘paper makes itself speak’ is related to this concept. The self-regulating qualities of the medium are respected to their utmost and by relegating the traces of the hand to a dormant position, in a state of inaction, the approach of activity and object, the body and material is effected.
One of the most remarkable aspects of Park Seo-bo’s later ecriture is that stroke and line take the lead in the modality of revelation. A pencil does not leave marks on hanji which has soaked up water based paint. Instead, the repeated strokes of the pencil leave a furrow while the pressure of these strokes pushes on the hanji serving to elevate the lines. Through this ‘latency’ comes manifestation and through concealment comes a revelation. The traces of the act became hidden as a base and on the surface of this base a natural ‘raising impression’ is created, and at the same time, the aspects made by the lines would not be possible on any material except hanji. The creative process for these lines is not drawn, but instead something that has occurred naturally on the hanji itself, in a dramatic reversal of base and drawing. This effect can be compared to the act of plowing a furrow where the plowed earth forms ridge lines in effect producing a type of landscape which combines the artificial and natural.
The artist has compared this result to paintings of the calligraphic school. In other words, line and surface, or the Western division between drawing and painting has been resolved, base and gesture have been reversed, and by fostering unity in another dimension a unique sense of surface has been created.
In the physical activity of the artist, in other words in his inclusion of line, we find an explanation of the mean that crosses between the opacity of matter and the translucency of spiritual vision. In that process the semi- translucent and neutralized space that is revealed is a medium, serving both as a middle ground and place for discussion between ‘natural and the artificial,’ ‘the world and the self,’ and ‘matter and concept.’
Here in the ecriture canvases ‘drawing’ by obliterating the traces of the act, reveals an invisible realm. The repetition of purposeless activity accumulates so the even the sense of time is compressed into the canvas and becomes latent. The realm of the invisible and supra time is exactly the ‘world of anti-matter’ and speaks to a certain spiritual state. The mind is emptied, concepts are erased, and even the physical traces are concealed. By doing so the things that are even more clearly revealed are principles that govern our world and the depths of the spirit.
For a long time ecriture consistently sought the synergy between object and act. In this way matter and body, self and the world, reached the point of complete unity. The desire for moral training and a methodology based on the mean, led to the crossing of culminating point. Thus in the original meaning of the term, a return to nature’s spiritual realm.
(This essay originally appeared in the catalogue produced for the exhibition entitled Korean Monochromism: Methods, Ideas, and Spirit held at the Pusan Metropolitan Art Museum from December 11, 1998 to March 2, 1999)

바이오그래피

1931 한국 경상북도 예천 출생
1954 홍익대학 미술학부 회화과 졸업
1962-97 홍익대학교 미술대학 회화과 교수(97년 정년퇴임, 이후 명예교수)
1977-80 재단법인 한국미술협회 이사장, 한국예술문화단체 총 연합회 부회장
1986-90 홍익대학교 미술대학장
1994- 재단법인 서보미술문화재단 설립

주요개인전

2015 개인전, 조현화랑, 부산
박서보의 묘접: “에스키스-드로잉”, 노화랑,서울
2014 박서보 : 묘법전, 갤러리 PERROTIN 파리
G-SEOUL 14, 조현화랑 (Booth No. A16), 동대문 디자인 파크, 서울
2012 갤러리 신라, 대구
대구미술관, 대구
2010-2011 회고전<박서보,한국아방가르드의 선구자 :화업60년>, 부산시립미술관, 부산
조현화랑, 부산
국제갤러리, 서울
2009 KIAF 2009 (한국 국제 아트 페어), 샘터화랑(Booth No.C-26), 코엑스, 서울
2008 “Empty the mind”, 아라리오 뉴욕, NEW YORK
KIAF 2008, Wellside Gallery, COEX/ 인도양홀, 서울
CIGE 2008, 갤러리 샘터, 중국 무역관, 베이징
2007 아라리오 베이징, 베이징
박서보, ‘색을 쓰다, 경기도 미술관’, 안산
KIAF 2007, 갤러리 샘터 코엑스/인도양홀, 서울
CIGE 2007, 갤러리 샘터, 중국 무역관, 베이징
2006-7 Cabinet des Dessins, Musee De art Moderne, Saint-Etienne Metropole,Saint-Etienne
KIAF 2006, 갤러리 샘터, 코엑스/인도양홀, 서울
조현 갤러리, 부산
CIGE 2006, 갤러리 샘터, 중국 무역관, 베이징
SIPA2006, 한국판화진흥회, 예술의전당, 한가람 미술관, 서울
2006 중국 국제화랑박람회, 샘터화랑, 중국국제무역중심전청, 베이징
2005 상하이 예술 박람회 2005, 샘터화랑(Booth No.B35), 상하이 세계무역홀, 상하이
샘터화랑, 서울
중국 국제화랑박람회, 샘터화랑, 국무전람대청, 베이징
2004 갤러리 크세쥬, 서울
화랑미술제, 샘터화랑, 예술의 전당, 서울
제10회 MANIF 서울 2004, 예술의 전당, 서울
중국국제화랑박람회, 샘터화랑, 베이징중국과학기술박람회장, 베이징
2003 제9회 MANIF 서울 2003, 예술의 전당, 서울

주요단체전

2015 아방가르드 아시아, 소더비 갤러리, 홍콩
아트 스테이지 싱가포르,Galerie PERROTIN,파리 & JOHYUN 갤러리,부산, 싱가포르
2014-2015 WORKING WITH NATURE, 조현화랑, 부산, 서울
2014 리움개관 10주년 기념전, [교감], 리움삼성 미술관, 서울
전면으로 부터 : 추상하는 단색화” 갤러리 Blum & Poe, LA
The Art of DANSAEKHWA, 국제갤러리, 서울
‘현대 단색화를 극복하다’, 한국 모노크롬 운동, 알렉산더 그레이 화랑, 뉴욕
2013 white & white -한국과 이탈리아 사이의 대화-, 깔로 빌로띠 미술관, 로마
2012 한국의 단색화, DANSAEKHWA: Korean Monochrome Painting, 전북도립미술관, 전북
2011-2012 <단색조의 회화.1> 공간퍼플, 헤이리, 파주
2010-2011 정신으로서의 선, 그 힘, 대전시립 이응노 미술관, 대전
2009 신호탄, 국립현대미술관 서울관, 서울
MIXOGRAFIA – 혁신과 합작 -,the Vivian and Fordon Gilkey Center For Graphic Arts, Portland Museum,. 오르곤
The Color of Nature – 한국의 단색 회화 – Wellside 갤러리, 상하이
김창열, 박서보, 이우환 3인전 조현화랑, 부산
2008-9 초월적 미의 탐색 <2008 싱가폴 코리아 페스티발 한국 현대 미술전>,싱가포르 미술관, 싱가포르
2008 SIPA 2008, 샘터화랑, 예술의 정당 한가람 미술관, 서울
부산 비엔날레, ‘미술은 살아있다’ – 아이사 현대 미술의 리더들-, 부산시청전시실, 부산
, Seoul Metropolitan Museum of Art, 서울
2007 도시의 교차로 – 뉴욕,파리,서울-, 벨그라드 미술관, 벨그라드
움직이는 시(詩), 갤러리 바이엘러, 바젤
한국 현대미술의 계보, 이안 갤러리, 대구
융통성 있는 금기, 쿤스트할레 빈, 비엔나
2006 ‘박서보&이강소: Working With Nature’ (테이트 갤러리 리버풀)-14년 후, 갤러리 샘터, 서울
SIPA 2006, 한가람 미술관, 서울
아트 싱가폴 2006, 이화익 갤러리, 싱가폴
‘정착된 像’, 갤러리 SP, 서울
멜버른 아트 페어 2006, 갤러리 샘터, 멜버른
아트`06 시카고, UM 갤러리, 시카고
아트 페어 볼로냐, Galerie Dorothea Van Der Koelen Mainz, 볼로냐 전시 센터, Exhibition Center, 이탈리아 볼로냐

주요수상

1999 제1회 「자랑스러운 미술인」상(창작부문), 한국미술협회, 서울
1995 제44회 서울특별시 문화상(미술부문), 서울특별시 주최, 서울
1994 문화훈장(옥관)
1987 제1회 예총 예술문화 대상(미술부문), 한국예술문화단체 총연합회 주최, 서울
1984 국민훈장(석류장)
1979 제11회 대한민국 문화예술상(미술부문: 대통령상), 문화공보부 주최, 서울
1976 제2회 중앙문화대상(예술부문), 중앙일보사 주최, 서울
1972 대통령표창, 서울
1961 세계청년화가의 파리대회(유네스코 국제조형 미술연맹 프랑스국 위원회 주최), 제1위, 파리

기타경력

주요미술관 소장
국립현대미술관, 서울
서울워커힐아트센터, 서울
서울홍익대학교 현대미술관, 서울
Leeum 삼성미술관, 서울
서울후쿠오카시미술관, 후쿠오카, 일본
도쿄도현대미술관, 도쿄., 일본
오오하라미술관, 구라시끼, 일본
도야마껭근대미술관, 도야마, 일본
히로시마시현대미술관, 히로시마, 일본
선재현대미술관, 경주
서귀포시립 기당미술관, 제주도
신천지 조각공원 미술관, 제주도
시모노세키 시립미술관, 시모노세키, 일본
광주시립미술관, 광주
이화여자대학교박물관, 서울
부산시립미술관, 부산
POSCO미술관, 서울
미에껭미술관, 미에껭, 일본
한림미술관, 대전
토탈미술관, 서울
서울시립미술관, 서울
FNAC(Found National d’Art Contemporain), 프랑스

Biography

1931 Born in Ye-Cheon, Gyeong-Buk, Korea

Education
1954 Educated, Painting Dept. of Hong-Ik University, Seoul, Korea

2000 Honorary Doctoral Degree, Hong-Ik University, Seoul
1994 Founded Seo-Bo Art and Cultural Foundation, Seoul

Solo Exhibitions

2002 Gallery Hyundai, Seoul
Park Ryu Sook Gallery, Seoul
Remba Gallery, LA
Gallery Sejul, Seoul
Ci-Gong Gallery, Taegu
2000 Tokyo Gallery, Tokyo
Special Invited Exhibition: MANIF 6! 2000, Seoul Arts Center, Seoul
1999 Gallery Shilla, Taegu
Ci-Gong Gallery, Taegu
Jo Hyun Gallery, Pusan
1998 Tokyo Gallery, Tokyo
1997 Ace Gallery Los Angeles, LA
Remba Gallery, LA
Park Ryu Sook Gallery, Seoul
Gallery Hyundai, Seoul
Ci-Gong Gallery, Taegu
1996 BASEL ART FAIR(Park Ryu Sook Gallery, Messe Basel, Basel
FIAC ‘96(Jo Hyun Gallery) Espace Eiffel Branly, Paris
Jo Hyun Gallery, Pusan
Ci-Gong Gallery, Taegu
1994 Gallerie Bhak, Seoul
Remba Gallery, LA
Tokyo Gallery, Tokyo
1993 ART LA 93. The 8th International Contemporary Art Fair, Los Angeles Convention Center(Gallery World), LA
NICAF YOKOHAMA ‘93(Sun Gallery), Yokohama
1991 ‘PARK, SEO-BO’s Painting: Its Forty Years’, The National Museum of Contemporary Art, Seoul
Duson Gallery, Seoul
Gallery World, Pusan
Gallery Kongkan, Pusan
1989 ART LA 89: The 4th International Contemporary Art Fair, Los Angeles Convention Center(Jean Art Gallery), LA
1988 Hyundai Gallery, Seoul
1987 Inkong Gallery, Seoul
1986 Tokyo Gallery, Tokyo
1985 Ina Gallery, Tokyo
1983 Space Gallery, Seoul
1981 Hyundai Gallery, Seoul
1978 Tokyo Gallery, Tokyo
Tong-In Gallery, Seoul
1973 Muramatsu Gallery, Tokyo
Myungdong Gallery, Seoul
1970 Seoul Gallery, Seoul
1962 National Central Library Gallery, Seoul